OVERVIEW:  The Brucellae are a group of gram-negative cocco-baccillary organisms, of which four species are pathogenic in humans.  Abattoir and laboratory workers infections suggest that Brucella spp. are highly infectious via the aerosol route.  It is estimated that inhalation of only 10 to 100 bacteria is sufficient to cause disease in man.  The relatively long […]

History of Biological Warfare and Current Threat

The use of biological warpons and efforts to make them more useful as a means of waging war have been recorded numerous times in history.  Two of the earliest reported uses occurred in the 6th century BC, with the Assyrians poisoning enemy wells with rye ergot, and Solon’s used of the purgative herb hellebore during […]


Bioterrorism Bioterrorism is terrorism by intentional release or dissemination of biological agents (bacteria, viruses or toxins); these may be in a naturally-occurring or in a human-modified form. Definition According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to […]

Anthrax Infection Control Information

Anthrax Information Anthrax (Greek Άνθραξ for coal) is an acute disease in humans and animals that is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is highly lethal in some forms. Anthrax is one of only a few bacteria that can form long-lived spores. When the bacteria’s life cycle is threatened by factors such as lack […]